Image                          by Daniel T. Lewis

The word occult comes from the Latin word occultus (clandestine, hidden, secret), referring to “knowledge of the hidden”. Thus by definition occult symbolism is that which we see in everyday life, but are unaware of its meaning. Occultism is the study of occult or hidden wisdom. Christian Theism holds that God has reveled himself in three distinct ways, through his creation, through his written word (the Bible, and through his Son Jesus Christ. From the traditional Christian Theistic worldview the occult involves anything supernatural or paranormal which is not achieved by or through God, and is therefore the work of an opposing and malevolent entity, Satan. Because of the malevolent nature of the occult it is important for all of us, especially Christians, to be aware of the meaning of Occultic symbolism.

The Fall of Satan:

The obvious place to begin a discussion of Occultic symbols is with a discussion of the symbols for Satan. An obvious way to understand the symbols for Satan is to understand what the Bible tells us about Satan. Generally, Christian teaching holds that Satan was Lucifer, who rebelled against God.

Job 38:4-7 tells us that angels were created before mankind:

4 Where wast thou when I laid the foundations of the earth? declare, if thou hast understanding.

5 Who hath laid the measures thereof, if thou knowest? or who hath stretched the line upon it?

6 Whereupon are the foundations thereof fastened? or who laid the corner stone thereof;

7 When the morning stars sang together, and all the sons of God shouted for joy?

Two important phrases in verse seven are “morning stars” and “sons of God”. The phrase “morning stars” comes from the Hebrew word for “morning” (boqer) and the Hebrew word for “stars” (kowkab). The word is sometimes, as in this verse used as an idiom to refer to rulership of angles. The phrase “sons of God” comes from the Hebrew for “son” (ben) and the Hebrew word used to describe God throughout the Old Testament, (elohiym). The earth and perhaps its foundation were created on day one of the creation week (seen Genesis 1:1-5). The foundation of the earth would have at latest been created on day three when dry land appeared (see Genesis 1:9 – 13). The stars were not created until day four (see Genesis 1:14 through 19), so the morning stars mentioned in Job 38 cannot refer to the actual physical stars, but must be an illusion to angles. Genesis 1:31 tells us that at the end of the creation week God saw everything that he had made, including all angles, and that it all was very good.

Ezekiel 28 relays prophecy against the wicked king of Tyrus, but it goes beyond the mere human king to the wicked power behind the throne. The attributes described in these verses only can fit Satan.

12 Son of man, take up a lamentation upon the king of Tyrus, and say unto him, Thus saith the Lord GOD; Thou sealest up the sum, full of wisdom, and perfect in beauty.

13 Thou hast been in Eden the garden of God; every precious stone was thy covering, the sardius, topaz, and the diamond, the beryl, the onyx, and the jasper, the sapphire, the emerald, and the carbuncle, and gold: the workmanship of thy tabrets and of thy pipes was prepared in thee in the day that thou wast created.

14 Thou art the anointed cherub that covereth; and I have set thee so: thou wast upon the holy mountain of God; thou hast walked up and down in the midst of the stones of fire.

15 Thou wast perfect in thy ways from the day that thou wast created, till iniquity was found in thee.

16 By the multitude of thy merchandise they have filled the midst of thee with violence, and thou hast sinned: therefore I will cast thee as profane out of the mountain of God: and I will destroy thee, O covering cherub, from the midst of the stones of fire.

17 Thine heart was lifted up because of thy beauty, thou hast corrupted thy wisdom by reason of thy brightness: I will cast thee to the ground, I will lay thee before kings, that they may behold thee.

18 Thou hast defiled thy sanctuaries by the multitude of thine iniquities, by the iniquity of thy traffick; therefore will I bring forth a fire from the midst of thee, it shall devour thee, and I will bring thee to ashes upon the earth in the sight of all them that behold thee.

19 All they that know thee among the people shall be astonished at thee: thou shalt be a terror, and never shalt thou be any more.

Another passage about the fall of Satan is given in Isaiah 14

12 How art thou fallen from heaven, O Lucifer, son of the morning! [how] art thou cut down to the ground, which didst weaken the nations!

13 For thou hast said in thine heart, I will ascend into heaven, I will exalt my throne above the stars of God: I will sit also upon the mount of the congregation, in the sides of the north:

14 I will ascend above the heights of the clouds; I will be like the most High.

15 Yet thou shalt be brought down to hell, to the sides of the pit.

16 They that see thee shall narrowly look upon thee, [and] consider thee, [saying, Is] this the man that made the earth to tremble, that did shake kingdoms;

17 [That] made the world as a wilderness, and destroyed the cities thereof; [that] opened not the house of his prisoners?

18 All the kings of the nations, [even] all of them, lie in glory, every one in his own house.

19 But thou art cast out of thy grave like an abominable branch, [and as] the raiment of those that are slain, thrust through with a sword, that go down to the stones of the pit; as a carcase trodden under feet.

20 Thou shalt not be joined with them in burial, because thou hast destroyed thy land, [and] slain thy people: the seed of evildoers shall never be renowned.

The Morning Stars Mercury and Venus:

From these verses one may conclude that Satan is identified with the morning stars. Both Mercury and Venus are both evening and morning stars. That is because they are nearer to the sun than the earth is, so they can never appear very far from the sun in the sky. In other words, when the sun sets in the evening they might be in the west, near the sun as an evening star. Or they could be in the morning sky before sunrise, again, near the sun. But neither Mercury nor Venus can be opposite the sun in the sky, such as rising at sunset. Hence, they are called the evening and morning stars. Actually, “evening star” or “morning star” nearly always refers to Venus, which is by far the brightest celestial object in the sky after the sun and moon. Mercury is much dimmer and only visible for a few weeks of the year. This then means that Satan is identified with Venus.


Artistic depictions of Venus

The Romans called the goddess principally associated with love, beauty and fertility Venus. Venus’s attributes largely arose from the Greek goddess Aphrodite. In Roman mythology Venus acts as consort to Vulcan. Vulcan presided as the Roman god of beneficial and hindering fire. Romans considered Venus the ancestor of the legendary founders of Rome. Venus and Aphrodite acted as the goddess of love, lust, and beauty. In Roman mythology Venus became associated with myrtle, the dove, the sparrow, and the swan. Venus was known as Inanna among the Sumerian people, Astarte among the Phoenicians, and Turan among the Etruscan. Venus parallels the Indo-European dawn goddesses such as Ushas or Aurora. The planet Venus is named for the goddess.

When Venus passes behind the sun a superior conjunction occurs. When Venus passes between the earth and the sun an inferior conjunction occurs. In both instances the view of Venus from the earth becomes obstructed. Plotting the Venus’ westward elongation from the Sun, over five consecutive synodic periods creates the points of a pentagram (five pointed star). This period is 584 days long. Each period produces a different point of the pentagram. It takes about eight years, five days to completely trace the entire pentagram. The pentagram figure slowly revolves within an oval in a clockwise direction, alternating either one or two points ascendant roughly every 160 years. No observation point on Earth yields a regular pentagram. Moving further north elongates the figure while on the equator the figure is an irregular pentagon.

The Serpent, Snake, and Dragon:

The Biblical account about the fall of mankind recorded in Genesis 3 introduces a creature called “the serpent”. The Hebrew word rendered “serpent” in Gen. 3:1 is nachash (Strong’s Number 5175), and means a serpent or a snake (see The Complete Word Study Dictionary by Warren Baker and Eugene Carpenter pg 1798). With different vowel points the word would be (Strong’s number 5172) the Hebrew verb which means to practice divination or sorcery. Yet another set of vowel pints yields the Hebrew word for brass or copper (Strong’s Number 5174). During the ninth and tenth centuries AD, the Masoretes, Jewish scholars in Tiberias, Galilee, perfected a system of points or nikkud for vowel notation and added it to the received consonantal text. The vowel points were added to ensure proper interpretation and reading of Hebrew Scripture, and are known as the Masoretic or Tiberian vowel points. This point system was added without altering the spacing of the text. Thus historically and grammatically nachash means serpent or snake.

The Bible makes clear the identity of who or what used the body of this ‘beast of the field’, not only to speak to Eve, but also to persuade her to disobey almighty God? Jesus once told the Pharisees, “Ye are of your father the devil, and the lusts of your father ye will do. He was a murderer from the beginning . . . he is a liar, and the father of it ” (John 8:44). The best event to fit this description is the fall, which occurred right after mankind was created. The serpent lied to Eve when he said, “Ye shall not surely die”, and as this is the first lie recorded in Scripture, the title ‘father of it’ [it = lies or lying] would seem to be a very apt description of the person doing the lying on this occasion.

Since the serpent’s efforts resulted in the penalty of death falling not only on Adam and Eve, but on the whole human race. Jesus’ term of ‘murderer’ therefore certainly applies to whoever tempted Eve. The work of the serpent is thus the enactment of everything that Jesus ascribed to ‘the devil’ in John 8:44. Furthermore, there is no other event in recorded history that better fulfils this description of the devil than does the account of the temptation by the serpent in Genesis 3. A further tie-up between the serpent of Genesis 3 and Satan, or the devil, is given in Revelation 12:9 and 20:2: “And the great dragon was cast out, that old serpent, called the Devil, and Satan, which deceiveth the whole world.” The Hebrew word from which we get Satan “adversary” — primarily to God, secondarily to men; the term “devil” signifies “slanderer” of God to men, and of men to God’.

In the Genesis account the real serpent or snake was the agent in Satan’s hand. This is evident from the description of the reptile in Genesis 3:1 and the curse pronounced upon it in Genesis 3:14, “. . . upon thy belly shalt thou go, and dust shalt thou eat all the days of thy Life.” John 13:26–27 recalls that before Judas left the Upper Room to go and betray Jesus that Satan entered into him. In the same manner demons can indwell either human bodies or animal bodies — for example, Mark 5:1–13 tells of the time Jesus cast out a legion of devils from a man, and they then entered a herd of pigs which ran down a steep place into the sea. We may safely conclude that Satan appropriated and used the body of a specific serpent on this occasion to carry out his subtle purpose of tempting Eve to sin.

It is also clear that the use of euphemisms about the serpent, such as calling him ‘the personification of evil’, or calling the whole incident “myth” or “theological poetry”, will not do. The Bible presents this episode as a historical encounter between Eve and Satan, as real as that between Christ and Satan in the wilderness.

Serpent Symbols

It is clear that the Bible identifies Satan with the serpent or snake. Matriarch of the New Age Movement H.P. Blavatsky explained her view of the serpent in Genesis 3 in her infamous bookThe Secret Doctrine:

Once that the key to Genesis is in our hands, the scientific and symbolical Kabalah unveils the secret. The Great Serpent of the Garden of Eden and the Lord God are identical, ….

“Thus Satan, once he ceases to be viewed in the superstitious, dogmatic, un-philosophical spirit of the Churches, grows into the grandiose image of one who makes of a terrestrial, a divine Man, … ”

Blavatsky continues Satan’s lie that mankind should be as gods. Among the Egyptians, the serpent represented of divine wisdom. As a magical symbol among Satanists the serpent also stands for a symbol of wisdom. All the pagans in every era have used the serpent to worship and to consider as symbolic of wisdom. The Egyptians used a Sun supported by two asps as the emblem of Horhat the good genius; the serpent with the winged globe was placed over the doors and windows of the Temples as a guardian god. The entrances of the Egyptian Temples are decorated with the circle and the serpent. The Phrygians know Osiris as Sabazius and honor him as a solar deity who was represented by horns and whose emblem was a Serpent The god Dionysos, as well as Isis, were often depicted as snakes, sometimes they were intertwined. Isis was also independently depicted as a snake. In India and Tyre Python the Serpent Deity was shown coiled around the trunk of a tree. The Phoenicians represented the god Nomu (Kneph or Amun-Kneph) by a serpent. Serpents are depicted in the the Temple of Naki-Rustan in Persia, on the triumphal arch at Pechin, in China, over the gates of the great Temple of Chaundi Teeva, in Java; upon the walls of Athens. In India the serpent was sometimes associated with Shiva. Shiva wears a snake coiled around his upper arms and neck symbolizing the power he has over the most deadly of creatures. Snakes are also used to symbolize the Hindu dogma of reincarnation. Their natural process of molting or shedding their skin is symbolic of the human soul’s transmigration of bodies from one life to another. The Druids had a high veneration for the Serpent. Their great god, Hu, was typified by that reptile; and he is represented by the Bards as the wonderful chief dragon, the sovereign of heaven.

In Mexico stone cravings show the intersecting of two great serpents, which produce a circle with their bodies, and each a human head in its mouth. In the Occult a snake swallowing a human being symbolizes the process of initiation. A true initiate is one who has been given, or who has earned, such wisdom as permits him to look on such a brilliant influx of spiritual light and thus can be consumed by or become one with the serpent, the universal symbol of wisdom.

The Caduceus of Mercury (Roman) and the Karykeion of Hermes (Greek) is a short rod entwined by two snakes and topped by a pair of wings used by many medical organizations. The meaning, purpose, and esoteric meaning of the caduceus can often be interpreted from the sum of its parts. The staff (particularly the herald’s staff) was a symbol of authority carried in the hands of messengers. The winged quality of the wand of Hermes is in keeping with the alchemical or astrological importance of Mercury (whether taken to mean the planet, god, and element), quite often denoting fluidity, transformation, information, and new beginnings[citation needed] (as the elemental quarter of air is often likened to).[who?] The snake is often depicted in non Judeo-Christian traditions as a source or deliverer of wisdom.[citation needed] In Gnosticism the serpent represents Sophia or the manifestation of principles of the feminine divine (or Shekinah in the Judaism or Kabbalah).[citation needed] Note that the snakes are bound to each other in a double helix – a shape of stability, creation, and life; coincidentally this follows the arrangement that the King Cobras snake takes: fighting upright and face to face, trying to force the other to submit for sexual rights. In this it can be seen that the caduceus represents the authority to quickly deliver vital information or wisdom to aid, assist and enlighten. It is no surprise then that the caduceus is used by a variety of professions who have a connection with Hermes or Mercury in his traditional roles as the god of commerce, eloquence, invention, travel and thievery. In the Hermetic tradition, the caduceus is a symbol of spiritual awakening, and has been likened to the Kundalini serpents of Hindu mysticism. Kundalini Sakti, coiled and dormant ‘feminine’ energy, is the vast potential of psychic energy contained within us all. It is normally symbolized as a serpent coiled into three and a half circles, with its tail in its mouth, and spiralling around the central axis (sacrum or sacred bone) at the base of the spine. The awakening of this serpent and the manifestation of its powers is a primary aim of the practice of Kundalini Yoga.

The link between the caduceus of Hermes (Mercury) and medicine seems to have arisen by the seventh century A.D., when Hermes had come to be linked with alchemy. Alchemists were referred to as the sons of Hermes, as Hermetists or Hermeticists and as “practitioners of the hermetic arts”. As the medical arts arose from alchemy, the symbolism remained.

The staff or rod of Asclepius symbolizes the healing arts by combining the sacred serpent with the staff or rod. The serpent is shedding its skin as a symbol of reincarnation and fertility. The single serpent staff also appears on a Sumerian vase of c. 2000 B.C. representing the healing god Ningishita, the prototype of the Greek Asclepius. The staff is a phallic symbol of authority. At the Shrine to Asclepius in Pergamos, called Asclepieum, one finds the Greek god of medicine depicted holding his staff with the single sacred serpent wraped around it. Serpents were sacred to Asclepius because of their power to renew themselves. That is why there was a relief of serpents at the entrance to the sacred area of the medical center symbolizing health. The serpent of Asclepius was also a coat of arms for Pergamos. As early as the reign of Emperor Domitian, the image of Asclepius began to appear on the coins of the city. This is about the same time John wrote the book of Revelation. In Revelation 2:12- 13 John wrote:

12 And to the angel of the church in Pergamos write; These things saith he which hath the sharp sword with two edges;

13 I know thy works, and where thou dwellest, even where Satan’s seat is: and thou holdest fast my name, and hast not denied my faith, even in those days wherein Antipas was my faithful martyr, who was slain among you, where Satan dwelleth.

The serpent displayed at Asclepieum represented Satan. In India and Tyre Python the Serpent Deity was shown coiled around the trunk of a tree. Traditional depictions of Satan in the Garden of Eden show him as a serpent wrapped around a tree. The staff or rod of Asclepius actually symbolizes Satan in the Garden of Eden. Hebrews and Christians already knew that the snake, the symbol of Asclepius, symbolized evil in the Garden of Eden and represented everything sinful and Satanic.

Satan is often also described as a dragon. “And the great dragon was cast out, that old serpent, called the Devil, and Satan, which deceiveth the whole world: he was cast out into the earth, and his angels were cast out with him” (Revelation 12:9). In the Christian theology the dragon represents evil, Satan, and the Devil. The dragon is foe of God and humanity. Known to scholarship as a mythical monster, a huge lizard, winged, scaly, fire-breathing, doubtless originating in the memory of an actual prehistoric animal. Dragon is often synonymous with serpent. Among the Hebrews the dragon became known as Bel (and later Merodach). The Babylonians called him Tiamat. In Norse mythology and folk tales the dragon was Fafnir. The Gnostics refered to the dragon as Chozzar—The pig god of Atlantis and Peratae. The Greeks represented the dragon as Python conquered by Apollo and the two serpents killed by Hercules at his birth.

In the dualistic philosophy of Theosophy the dragon is neither good nor bad, but its differentiated aspects in nature make it assume one or the other character. Any conflict created by the duality of the dragon or serpent are essential to cosmic stability. The dragon itself is often dual, and it may be paired with the serpent, as with Agathodaimon and Kakodaimon, the good and evil serpents, seen in the caduceus. Again the dragon or serpent is two-poled as having a head and a tail. The mythical conflict between the sun god and the dragon represents the descent of spirit into matter and the eventual sublimation of matter by spirit in the ascending arc of evolution.

Furthermore, in Theosophy the dragon symbol may stand for powers of nature, which first overcome man, but which he must eventually overcome, as well as the spark of universal spirit atma-buddhi, which through the manasic principle seeks embodiment, but needs the help of the still lower principles in order to effect a union with the principles of earth. Like the serpent the dragon means among other things divine wisdom, especially where the serpent is used for terrestrial wisdom; and adepts or initiates were frequently called dragons. The dragon may be the symbol of a cycle; and the sevenfold dragon may mean the seven minor cycles in a great cycle.

The Ouroboros also spelled Ourorboros, Oroborus, Uroboros or Uroborus is an ancient symbol depicting a serpent or dragon swallowing its own tail and forming a circle. The name Ouroboros derives from the Greek work uroborus which means “tail-devourer.” Most often the Ouroboros symbolizes cyclicality, unity, or infinity. The ouroboros has been important in religious and mythological symbolism, but has also been frequently used in alchemical illustrations. More recently, it has been interpreted by psychologists, such as Carl Jung, as having an archetypical significance to the human psyche.

Panara Bread Chip Bag with Ouroboros

Alchemy is most commonly known as the attempt to turn metals into gold. Alchemy also has the lesser known spiritual objective of achieving eternal life. In alchemy the Ouroboros represents the alchemist’s quest for eternal life. The is also a symbol of time, from which alone wisdom is obtained. In alchemy the Ouroboros may be show surrounding the symbols for the extremes of life the child and skull are intended to symbolize the ‘beginning and then end’. The symbol means the beginning is and is in the end and the end is and is in the beginning. In this way the symbol of the Ouroboros also stands for the doctrine of reincarnation.

The Ouroboros has been featured on Masonic apron as well. We now draw your attention to the Masonic Apron depicted above. Notice the All-Seeing Eye on the left upper , the Sun worship symbol in the right upper , and the beehive with bees toward the bottom, all very typical Masonic and Satanic symbols. But, note the centerpiece symbol, with the Satanic Death’s Head in the middle of the Masonic Emblem of the Compass and Square. Notice that this symbol is surrounded by an Ouroboros, the snake eating its own tail. Further, notice that two sprigs of evergreen bough are below the Compass and Square; the Satanist uses the evergreen to depict eternal life.

Manly P. Hall in The Secret Teachings of All Ages (pg lxxxviii.) explains, “The serpent is the symbol and prototype of the Universal Savior, who redeems the worlds by giving creation the knowledge of itself and the realization of good and evil.” This echoes the dualistic teachings of Theosophy, for Theosophy arose from Freemasonry. In Morals and Dogma (pg 734), Albert Pike further explains, “It is the body of the Holy Spirit, the Universal Agent, the Serpent devouring its own tail.” With these meanings, the Ouroboros was used as a symbol of theosophy.

A double ouroboros (two creatures swallowing one another, or an ouroboros forming a figure 8) in alchemy signifies volatility. Spiritually, it signifies the balance of the upper and lower natures. The sideways ouroboros, known as a lemniscate and is used in mathematics as symbol and as concept of infinity.

Although both the lemniscate as symbol (based upon the double ouroboros) and as concept of infinity come to us from the start of human civilisation, its introduction into modern scientific usage only dates back to medieval times. The term lemniscate refers to the shape itself, and the Swiss mathematician Jacob Bernoulli (1654-1705) first called the shape a lemniscus (Latin for ribbon) in an article in Acta Eruditorum in 1694. The English mathematician John Wallis (1616-1703) used the infinity symbol to represent mathematical infinity in his book Arithmetica Infinitorum (first published in 1655).

The lemniscate enjoys widespread usage in the esoteric world. In the esoteric world the lemniscate became symbolic of the future and futurist thought, depicting eternal life, harmonious interaction between conscious and subconscious, serenity, harmony and dominion over the physical plane. The lemniscate is often used to illustrate abstract concepts, such as the concept of reincarnation. However, the symbol does not seem to appear in traditional Buddhist writings. In Zen Buddhism, a single circle represents infinity. The lemniscate occurs frequently in New Age writings and philosophies.

In New Age books Thoth’s celestial City of 8 and is symbolized by the lemniscate. The intertwined serpents on the Rod of Hermes are also said to form a lemniscate. Some New Agers consider the lemniscate as a symbol of the sexual union and sense of perfection – two becoming one (two uniting circles, one representing man and the other woman). In this context the lemniscate also shows male, the right, connected with female the left, this demonstrates equality because one is not above the other. A purification supposedly (but doubtful) Asian origin, used in Feng Shui, incorporates the use of the lemniscate. British mystic and occult writer Alistair Crowley describes the lemniscate as representing “heaven on earth or lower sephiroth plus Daath (or 7 planets plus Sothis); Mercury; Hod, Ogoad, the Buddhist & other 8 path. Perfection. Strength, fortitude, everlastingness. It is the first cubic number, hence it stands for the cube itself, or earth. Splendour of endurance.” Scientology founder L. Ron Hubbard used the lemniscate to explain how to attain infinity and increase the individuals personal universe to infinity, so that the “individual would become a god.” Some allege that Hubbard borrowed his ideas from Crowley. A text entitled Building the Sky Ladder: The 13th Tribe of Levi-Levitron (associated with the Bartonian Metaphysical Society), identifies the lemniscate as the “universal constant”, analogous to gravity in physics. The text continues:

FORCE (like countless billions of goldfish tails) has propelled the planetary mind over evolutionary DISTANCE at a growing VELOCITY carrying the MASS by means of WORK and hi-tec ACCELERATION into conjunction with the UNIVERSAL CONSTANT (-1) (infinity symbol 8) = Home again in INFINITY.

The Heaven’s Gate cult, whose members committed mass suicide in the late 1990s, used the lemniscate symbol to illustrate infinity, and the concept of infinity and eternal life features prominently in their scientific belief system. The International Raelian Movement states that life is a deliberate creation, using DNA, by a scientifically advanced people who made human beings literally in their image. The movement claims that these scientists used the lemniscate as their symbol, and that references to this symbol can be found in the ancient texts of many cultures.

Use of the lemniscate and its family of related symbols can be traced back to ancient esotericism. Plato described the lemniscate in The Timaeus. Thomas Aquinas and John Dee both used the lemniscate. The lemniscate bears a structural resemblance to the symbol used for marriage in geologies and the astrological sign Taurus. The Chinese express the totality of the universe with the figure 8. In spiritual terms, the lemniscate represents eternity, the numinous and the higher spiritual powers.

The use of a figure eight to represent infinity is an interesting choice, as eight is linked to the pre-creational infinity through the Ogdoad, the primeval forces of chaos in Egyptian mythology, represented as eight deities which existed before the creation of the sun god (the gods and their corresponding goddesses being Heh and Hauket, Amun and Amaunet, Nun and Naunet, Kek and Kauket). In neopaganism and the occult the number eight is significant as well. In the occult the octagram, eight-pointed star, is symbolic of fullness and regeneration. The Ordo Argentum Astrum, or Great White Brotherhood uses the octagram as their seal. The use of the figure eight can also be linked to a cyclical sense of infinity through the eight pagan festivals of the year. The Eight pagan festivals are:

Samhain which is also called Last/Blood Harvest, Ancestor Night, Feast of the Dead, or Noson Calan Gaeaf is celebrated October 31 through November 2. The main celbration are on October 31. The Festival of Samhain is a celebration of the end of the harvest season in Gaelic culture. The name comes from the Gaelic word for November.

Yule which is also called Cuidle, Alban Arthan, Midwinter, or the Winter Rite is celebrated during the winter solstice December 19 – 23. Yule is a winter festival historically celebrated primarily in northern Europe but now celebrated in many other countries in various forms.

Imbolc which is also called Brigit, Brigid’s Day, Candlemas, Bride’s Day, or Brigantia is celebrated February 1 and 2 (alternative celebrations are on February 2 – 7). Imbolc is one of the four principal festivals of the Irish calendar, celebrated among Gaelic peoples and some other Celtic cultures either at the beginning of February or at the first local signs of Spring. Most commonly it is celebrated on February 2, since this is the cross-quarter day on the solar calendar, halfway between the Winter Solstice and the Spring Equinox. Originally dedicated to the goddess Brigid.

Ostara which is also called Earrach, Alban Eilir, Lady Day, Festival of Trees is celebrated during the spring equinox March 20-23. Ostara is a modern Neopagan festival. It is loosely based on several holidays which were celebrated around the spring equinox. The festival Ostara is characterized by the rejoining of the Mother Goddess and her lover-consort-son, who spent the winter months in death. Other variations include the young god regaining strength in his youth after being born at Yule, and the goddess returning to her maiden aspect.

Beltane, Beltaine, or May Day is celebrated on May 1. Alternative celebrations are sometimes held on May 4 – 10. The name is derived from the Gaelic and Irish names for the month of May. As an ancient Gaelic festival, Bealtaine was celebrated in Ireland, Scotland and the Isle of Man. There were similar festivals held at the same time in the other Celtic countries of Wales, Brittany and Cornwall. Bealtaine and Samhain were the leading terminal dates of the civil year in Ireland though the latter festival was the most important. The festival survives in folkloric practices in the Celtic Nations and the diaspora, and has experienced a degree of revival in recent decades.

Midsummer, Litha, Samradh, Alban Hefin, Aerra Litha, or Mother Night is celebrated during the summer solstice June 19 to 23. European midsummer-related holidays, traditions, and celebrations are pre-Christian in origin and have been superficially Christianized. Some celebrate in a manner as close as possible to how they believe the Ancient Germanic pagans observed the tradition, while others observe the holiday with rituals culled from numerous other unrelated sources, Germanic culture being only one of the sources used.

Lughnasadh Lammas, 1st Harvest, Bread Harvest, or the Festival of First Fruits is celebrated August 1 and 2 or alternatively between August 3 and 10. Lughnasadh was one of the four main festivals of the medieval Irish calendar. The early Celtic calendar was based on the lunar, solar, and vegetative cycles, so the actual calendar date in ancient times may have varied. Lughnasadh marked the beginning of the harvest season, the ripening of first fruits, and was traditionally a time of community gatherings, market festivals, horse races and reunions with distant family and friends. In Celtic mythology, the Lughnasadh festival is said to have been begun by the god Lugh, as a funeral feast and games commemorating his foster-mother, Tailtiu, who died of exhaustion after clearing the plains of Ireland for agriculture. On mainland Europe and in Ireland many people continue to celebrate the holiday with bonfires and dancing.

Mabon, Foghar, Alban Elfed, Harvest Home, 2nd Harvest, Fruit Harvest, or Wine Harvest is celebrated during the autumn equinox September 19 through 23. Mabon was not an authentic ancient festival either in name or date. There is little evidence that the autumnal equinox was celebrated in Celtic countries, while all that is known about Anglo-Saxon customs of that time was that September was known as haleg-monath or ‘holy month’. The name Mabon has only been applied to the Neopagan festival of the autumn equinox very recently; the term was invented by Aidan Kelly in the 1970s as part of a religious studies project.

The snake/dragon symbol carries with it a strong occult meaning. Med Trust uses the occult staff of Asclepius in their corporate logo. The Python programming language uses two snakes to form a phallic cross for their corporate logo. Alfa Romeo also uses a man being eaten by the snake in their corporate logo symbolizing occult initiation. The logo for Subway sandwich shops is a stylized snake. Trusted Choice’s logo shows a snake rising to become a bird. Seeking to update the look of the network for the late 1950’s, NBC introduced a new logo with a speeded up version of the familiar chimes. This logo appeared at the end of every NBC network program for most of the 1960’s. NBC employees called this logo “the snake.” Ford’s Special Vehicle Team (SVT) uses a striking cobra as their logo. Dodge has a car called a viper, which features a snake logo. The Consortium on Breast Cancer Pharmacogenomics uses two intertwined cobras for its logo. A computer hardware company named Adder has a logo featuring a snake and triangle. BAM Drums also incorporates a snake in their logo. A triangle and snake are featured in the logo for Adder Consulting. Nexa U.S.A. uses a snake coiled into a cross as their corporate logo. The Canadian Bank of Commerce uses the caduceus of Hermes in their logo.

Serpent Logos

The ouroboros appears in the logos of Lucent Technologies and VLM New Arts Management. The Allen Parson Project, a British progressive rock band, featured the ouroboros on their album Vulture Culture. Anarcho punk band Crass (and their label Crass Records) used a double headed Ouroboros in their logo. It appeared in all their artwork, sleeves, record releases and posters. Neil Peart’s (of Rush) drum kit for the Snakes & Arrows Tour features the ouroboros on the drum shells and heads. Intel and Burger King uses a stylized ouroboros in their logos.

Modern usage of the lemniscate is very diverse. The Humanist Party (Partido Humanista) of Argentina uses the lemniscate as a symbol in their official flag. In mainstream Western religion, the infinity symbol can be found on the cross of St. Boniface. The 2002 FIFA Word Cup Korea Japan combined the two zeros in 2002 to form a lemniscate for their logo. Always feminine products incorporate the lemniscate in their logo. The Amanasu Group uses the lemniscate interlaced with a circle for their logo. The lemniscate also appears on several Tarot cards.

The Chakra:

Energy is a very important concept within the Occult. Chakra is a Sanskrit term meaning circle or wheel. Theories on chakras fit within systems that link the human body and mind into a single unit, sometimes called the ‘bodymind’ (Sanskrit: namarupa). The philosophical theories and models of chakras as centers of energy were first codified in Ancient India. A chakra is a center of activity that receives, assimilates, and expresses life force energy. The word chakra literally translates as wheel or disk and refers to a spinning sphere of bioenergetic activity emanating from the major nerve ganglia branching forward from the spinal column. There are six of these wheels stacked in a column of energy that spans from the base of the spine to the middle of the forehead. The seventh Chakra lies beyond the physical region. The following primary chakras are commonly described: 1. Muladhara – lower body, 2. Swadhisthana – reproductive parts, 3. Manipura – navel, 4. Anahata – heart, 5. Vishuddha – throat, 6. Ajna eyebrow or forehead, and 7. Sahasrara – top of head.

The Chakra:

The swastika (from Sanskrit svastika) is an equilateral cross with its arms bent at right angles, in either right-facing form or its mirrored left-facing form. The swastika can also be drawn as a traditional swastika, but with a second 90° bend in each arm. An ancient symbol, it occurs mainly in the cultures that are in modern day India and the surrounding area, sometimes as a geometrical motif and sometimes as a religious symbol. It was long widely used in major world religions such as Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism. The symbol, like the cross, shows the awakening of the energies of the spine and the opening of the Heart. However it also means something more. The swastika shows movement in a circle. Depending upon which way around the limbs are, it shows movement in a clockwise or anti-clockwise direction. This refers to Circulation of energy around the body. This is one of the most profound teachings of Yoga Kriya, Reiki and Taoism. The swastika symbol gives the secret of force, and the direction of movement of spiritual energy.

According to false New Age teachings the human organism, its functioning, and the condition of its subtle bodies depends on the chakras’ work, or spinning. When the chakras are spinning effectively, they bring balanced functioning to the organism, a free-flowing of energies, and harmony between consciousness and sub-consciousness and between inner and outer worlds as well. For those who follow Eastern and New Age teaching the idea or symbol of a spinning or moving Chakra is very important or powerful. The logs for General Electric, Bell, Whirlpool, and Wing Zone all show a spinning Chakra.

The Lightning Bolt:

In ancient mythologies from many cultures (Norse, Roman, Greek, Native American, etc.) the lighting bolt would be hurled by male sky gods to punish, water, or fertilize the earth or its creatures. Navajo myths linked it to the Thunderbird, the symbol of salvation and divine gifts. On children’s toys, it represents supernatural power. Double bolts, popular with contemporary skinheads, symbolize Nazi power.

The Lightning Bolt:

The Ford Motor Company produces the Thunderbird car. The Schutzstaffel (German for “Protective Squadron”), abbreviated SS- or using Runic double lightning bolts- was a major Nazi military organization under Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party. The rock band KISS uses lightning bolts as a substitution for the letter S in spelling their name. NBC used to have a logo with lightning bolts coming out of a microphone. Gatorade, Opel, the Power Rangers, and the now defunct Chicago Blitz all used the lightning bolt as a part of their logos.

Hollywood:

When Spanish explorers first entered the area at the foothills and the Cahuenga Pass, Native Americans were living in the canyons of the Santa Monica Mountains. Before long, the Indians had been moved to missions and the land which Hollywood now occupies was divided in two by the Spanish Government. Acreage to the west became part of Rancho La Brea and settlements to the East became Rancho Los Feliz. By the 1870s an agricultural community flourished in the area and crops ranging from hay and grain to subtropical bananas and pineapples were thriving. During the 1880s, the Ranchos were sub-divided.

Harvey Henderson Wilcox and his wife Daeida moved to Los Angeles from Topeka Kansans. In 1886, Wilcox bought 160 acres of land in the countryside to the west of the city at the foothills and the Cahuenga Pass. The Wilcox ranch now became “Hollywood Ranch.” Daeida Wilcox chose the name “Hollywood” because she heard a stranger on a train talk lovingly of a hollywood in Illinois. Holly doesn’t actually grow in Hollywood; it’s too hot here. The city of Hollywood was incorporated in 1903. In 1910, the city of Hollywood was incorporated into the city of Los Angeles because the former was in need of a water supply. Hollywood became a suburb of Los Angeles at that time.

Beginning in 1903, the same year Hollywood was incorporated as a town, Freemasons in Hollywood met in a structure in the approximate location of today’s Kodak Theater. The first master, Gilbert F. Stevenson, lived nearby on a five-acre lemon ranch, which he later sold to a lodge brother Charles E. Toberman. Toberman has been dubbed the “father of Hollywood.” Toberman was responsible for Sid Grauman moving his operations to Hollywood. When Hollywood Boulevard was still a quiet mix of homes and agricultural businesses, real estate developer Charles Toberman envisioned a thriving theatre district there. During his lifetime, he erected 36 stylish buildings in the heart of Hollywood, including the Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel and three themed theatres, which he developed with Sid Grauman — the Egyptian, the Chinese, and the El Capitan. Before any of these developments stood along the boulevard, however, Toberman built the new lodge headquarters there, in 1922. At the time, the temple was one of the most substantial structures in Hollywood’s sparse mix of buildings and citrus groves.

The Nestor Motion Picture Company of Bayonne, New Jersey was owned by David and William Horsley. The Horsley brothers along with other movie independents, succeeded in defeating the monopolistic hold on the industry of Thomas Edison’s Motion Picture Patents Company. However, weather conditions on the east coast made filming an uncertain proposition because camera technology at the time relied on sunshine. Frustrated, and realizing that California afforded the opportunity to make films year round, David Horsley moved his operations to the west coast. In the fall of 1911, the Nestor Motion Picture Company opened the first motion picture studio in Hollywood in the Blondeau Tavern building at the corner of Sunset Boulevard and Gower Street. With Horsley was Al Christie who served as General Manager and in charge of Christie Comedies plus Charles Rosher who lent his expertise as the studio’s full-time cameraman. Other east coast films companies recognized Horsley’s advantage and quickly followed his lead.

Freemason Cecil B. DeMille came to Hollywood in 1913. At first eh movie studios did not receive a warm reception. But that didn’t deter them one bit. While most major studios later built their soundstages and make-believe towns on the outskirts, Hollywood was their home base. It was soon regarded all over the world as the heart and soul of the film industry. Due to its fame and identity as a major centre of movie studios and stars, ‘Hollywood’ is often used to refer to the American motion picture industry.

In 1921, the Hollywood Masonic Lodge relocated from their existing lodge on the current site of the Kodak Theater. The construction of the new three-story building was led by lodge master, Charles E. Toberman. In 1922 Hollywood Freemason moved to their current lodge. In those early days when Hollywood was an independent city, the city attorney, city marshal, city treasurer and first mayor, George Dunlop, all were Masons. Arthur Letts, founder of the Broadway department store and artist Paul de Longpre, whose gallery and gardens drew many to the community, both were members, along with prominent judges and a significant number of bankers. The city’s first newspaper and doctor’s office were established by members, and the city’s electric car service was owned and operated by brothers of the lodge.

According to historical accounts Daeida Wilcox first used the name Hollywood for her family ranch, and the city adopted that same name. Freemasons played a vital role in establishing the city of Hollywood and in establishing the movie industry in that city. Ultimately it was this group of early Hollywood leaders that decided to keep and use the name Hollywood. The possible reasons for this choice of name may be discovered by exploring the nexus between Freemasons and Druids. The Druidic mysteries were founded on those of the Egyptians, and were analogous to those of Tyre, Persia and Hindostan; and that their moral doctrines and pristine simplicity of worship were those of the Hebrew Mysticism – Qabala. Freemasonic rituals and teachings, if not a modern form of the Druidic practices were derived from the same sources, and that the secrets of this science and philosophy are hidden from us by the veil of Isis. The initiations of Masons are so similar to those of the Druids, that any Mason reading about Druid initiations would notice striking similarities. The Ovade wore a gold chain round his neck. And the apprentice when initiated has a silk cord, in Masonic parlance a cable-tow, suspended from his throat. Like the Ovade, the apprentice is blindfolded, and as the former was led through the mazes of a labyrinth, the latter is led backwards and forwards, and in various directions. Both the Druid initiation and that of the Royal Arch uses artificial lighting. Noting this resemblance it is prudent to further notice the importance of Holly wood in Druid and Celtic lore.

The Druids regarded Holly as a scared plant. Holly is the whitest of all woods, and has been used in making piano keys. It was considered sacred by the druids, and played a part in the magic of the Greeks and Romans. Holly is regarded by many to be the most powerful protective wood. It protects against evil spirits and evil plans. In early Europe, holly and other thorny plants were believed to repel all evil spirits. Ivory colored and very light with virtually no grain – Holly has a positive invoking energy. It is also associated with new beginnings, a triumph over evil, new kingship and wise rule. It is especially suited to spells to bestow knowledge, eloquence and persuasion. Holly is considered to have a transforming power. Holly is instrumental the turning of the year in the Winter and Summer Solstice, when Holly King and Oak King do battle. In Arthurian legend, Gawain (representing the Oak King of summer) fought the Green Knight, who was armed with a holly club to represent winter. One must pass while the other triumphs. The cycle is repeated over and over again. Historically, the wood was favored for spear shafts, and as such, was the prototype of magic wands we know today. The wand represents the male yang energy, directing vigor and energy which pierces illusion. As such, it is excellent in protection, overthrowing the old and outdated and planting seeds for a new beginning.

Give the active role Hollywood, through its movies marketed world wide, plays in bestowing knowledge and persuasion it is not at all surprising that the entire American film industry would be identified with Hollywood (i.e. Holly wood), the very material used by Druids to make their magic wands. It also should come as no that the Freemasons who founded Hollywood and established it as the Movie Capital of the world would use the name Hollywood to describe the place where they make “movie magic.” A number of movie companies use Occultic symbols in their logos (for example Columbia, Paramount, and Universal Studios), so it makes perfect sense that name Hollywood itself is an Occultic symbol, with a meaning only known to the initiated.

The Mother goddess or sacred feminine:

From the earliest of times, the mythic representation of the mother goddess symbolized through images and events connected with fertility and reproduction became a part of the concept known as the sacred feminine. Numerous cultural and religious traditions including Gnosticism and the New Age movement of Wicca connect the image of the earth or mother goddess to rituals surrounding, and images of fertility. References to mother earth or Gaia abound both in antiquity and contemporary times. Gaia, Gaea or Ge is the primal Greek goddess personifying the Earth. Gaia is a primordial and chthonic deity in the Ancient Greek pantheon and considered a Mother Goddess or Great Goddess. Her equivalent in the Roman pantheon was Terra. The Egyptians worshipped the mother heavens, the goddess Nuit, who they represented as the whole heavenly sphere.

Mother Goddess Symbols

Another form of the mother goddess was Atargatis, who was represented as a mermaid. The cult of Atargatis spread from Syria by sea-going merchants to Greece and Italy and by slaves to the far north of the Roman Empire. Her son, the fruit of her womb and product of her fertility, was Ichthys, whose symbol was a fish. Thus the fish came to symbolize Atargatis’ fertility. Atargatis was worshipped with drunkenness, orgies and flagellation. Atargatis symbolized the fertility of the sea. Her son Ichthys was the physical form of that fertility. The cult of Atargatis taught that Ichthys died and rose from the dead. Counterfeit stories of death and resurrection abound in ancient cults and mythology. Not surprisingly the Syrians identified Atargatis with Venus. The fish also appears in another sacred iconograph, the Avatars of Vishnu, where the deity “is represented as emerging from the mouth of a fish, and being a fish himself; the legend being that he was to be the savior of the world in a deluge which was to follow.

Ichthys, the offspring son of Atargatis, and was known in various mythic systems as Tirgata, Aphrodite, Pelagia or Delphine. The dolphin has become a very popular symbol. The Greeks worshipped Delphin, a dolphin in the service of the god Poseidon. When his master was wooing Amphitrite and she fled, Delphin went in search of the nymph and persuaded her to agree to the marriage. For his service Poseidon placed him amongst the stars as the Constellation Delphinus.

The dolphin has long had a symbolic meaning in Celtic art. Since the dolphin lives in the water, it is understandable that it has become associated with water. According to Celtic beliefs, water has the power to “wash away” past problems and to rejuvenate a person. In this sense, the person is able to make a new start. Therefore, the dolphin represents the death of a past lifestyle and the birth of a new life. This is symbolic of the Eastern doctrine of reincarnation. The ancient Celts also viewed the dolphin as a symbol of both prosperity and guidance.

While the Celts viewed the dolphin as a symbol of rebirth, some view the dolphin as a symbol of the life they hope to have someday. The dolphin itself has long been a popular animal. As we learn more about these majestic and intelligent creatures, we begin to feel as though they are somehow different from other animals and much like ourselves. Some within the New Age Movement think of dolphins as a superior species to mankind. Many feel as though dolphins connect mankind to the world of the sea. The almost mystical connection perceived between mankind and dolphins is a large reason for our desire to pay tribute and show respect to these animals. The image of two dolphins together is symbolic of harmony within the Chinese yin-yang philosophy.

Delphine also meant “womb” and “dolphin” in some tongues, and representations of this appeared in the depiction of mermaids. The Greek word “delphos” may be translated as both “fish” and “womb.” Diana of the Ephesians has a fish-shaped amulet that covers her genital region. Another connection between the fish and genitalia is related in the legend of Osiris.

According to legend, Set constructed a sarcophagus specifically to Osiris’s measurements. When Osiris tried to lie in the sarcophagus, the lid slammed on him and was locked. Then Set sealed the sarcophagus with led and dumped it in the Nile. Upon hearing of her husband’s demise, Isis set out to look for him. She found the coffin and returned it to Egypt for burial. She exhumed Osiris’ body and dismembered him into thirteen parts, scattering them across Egypt. \

Once again Isis set out to look for the pieces and she was able to find and put together twelve of the thirteen parts, but was unable to find the thirteenth, his lingam, which was eaten by the oxyrhynchus fish (a fish with an unusual curved snout resembling depictions of Set). As a result Isis fashioned a phallus out of gold and sang a song around Osiris until he came back to life.

While the fish is often tied to a generative and reproductive spirit in mythology, the fish also has been identified in certain cultures with reincarnation and the life force. In India for example, the fish was believed to house a deceased soul, and that as part of a fertility ritual specific fish is eaten in the belief that it will be reincarnated in a newborn child.

From antiquity, the fish symbol represented “the Great Mother.” As such the symbol stood for fertility, birth, feminine sexuality and the natural force of women. A “Cult of the Fish Mother” goes as far back as the hunting and fishing people of the Danube River Basin in the sixth millennium B.C.E. Over fifty shrines have been found throughout the region which depict a fishlike deity, a female creature who “incorporates aspects of an egg, a fish and a woman which could have been a primeval creator or a mythical ancestress…” The “Great Goddess” was portrayed elsewhere with pendulous breasts, accentuated buttocks and a conspicuous external female genital orifice, depicted as the upright “vesica piscis.” The symbol for the fish was a pointed oval sign, the “vesica piscis” or Vessel of the Fish. The vesica piscis is a shape which is the intersection two circles of the same radius, intersecting in such a way that the center of each circle lies on the circumference of the other. Master Card, Kool cigarettes, and Gucci use the vesica piscis as a part of their corporate logo. In one of the versions of the logo for Universal Pictures movie studio, the mother goddess earth, common in all representations of the studio’s logo, is pictured in the middle of the vesica piscis.

Early Christians took the familiar pagan symbol of the “vesica piscis” and rotated 90-degrees to serve as their symbol. Among many Christians today, the fish symbol is commonly used without any consideration of its meaning or origin. The fish symbol is commonly identified as the “ICHTHUS,” an acronym from the Greek, “Iesous Christos Theou Uios Soter,” or “Jesus Christ the Son of God, Savior.” This acronym was actually invented after the fact.

The vesica piscis is also known by the name “yoni.” The Yoni refers to the middle portion of the interlocking circles. In Sanskrit the word yoni means “divine passage”, “place of birth”, “womb” (more as nature as a womb and cradle of all creations) or “sacred temple.” The word also has a wider meaning in both profane and spiritual contexts, covering a range of meanings of “place of birth, source, origin, spring, fountain, place of rest, repository, receptacle, seat, abode, home, lair, nest, stable.” The yoni is also considered to be symbolic of Shakti or other goddesses of a similar nature. The sign of the yoni was meant to convey the shape of the external female genitalia.

A simplistic representation of the yoni is the downward pointing triangle, which is sometimes called the chalice. It is the symbol of water (as it flows downward), the grace of heaven, and the womb. It is one of the most ancient symbols of female divinity, as a representation of the genitalia of the goddess. Valvoline, A Beka Book, a major publisher Christian School textbooks uses an open book to form the distinct chalice symbol for the mother goddess. A Beka Book replaced its original logo depicting Ishtar the owl goddes with the more subtle symbolism of the mother goddess. Visa, and Chevron all use the inverted triangle symbol for the goddess in their corporate logo. The United Way cups the hand in its corporate logo to form a downward pointing symbol for the goddess. Variant forms of the chalice symbol of the mother goddess are often incorporated as symbols by Christian churches, without realizing the true meaning of this symbolism.

The Hindu, Jain and Buddhist religions recognize Aum (also Om) as a mystical syllable and symbol. Most Hindu text place it as a sacred exclamation to be uttered at the beginning and end of a reading of the Vedas or previously to any prayer or mantra and also is said in the beginning of any puja (religious ritual). Om contains the totality of sounds arising from three fundamental sounds–“a”, “u”, and “m,” and is said to be a universal representation of god (Chockalin), it is familiar to most of us in its current symbolic form. When one looks at the earliest recorded form of this symbol it becomes clear that it is a pictograph of the Paleolithic great mother we know well from the hundreds of “Venus” figures discovered all over Eurasia. Eventually the symbol developed into its current form, which still resembles the great mother goddess, as represented by the classic vesica piscis.

Throughout history many cultures used the crescent moon as a sacred symbol of the mother goddess. Symbolic uses include using the crescent moon alone or with a star or sun symbol. The star used in the ‘crescent and star’ motif represented the Sun and hence the sun-god most of the times. In other times it represented the planet Venus and hence the goddess “Inanna” of Sumerians also known by the name “Ishtar” to Babylonians. Particularly when the planet Venus makes conjunction with the moon in its crescent phase, it makes an unusual celestial crescent and star appearance that must have awed the earliest believers of astral objects as their gods, believing that their gods were sending a message for them to understand. The roots of “crescent”, “star” and the “crescent and star” symbols appears to be linked to the religious and shamanistic beliefs of ancient central Asia. The earliest documented use of the crescent moon and star goes back to the use of this symbol by the Ottoman Turks was on the standards of Turkish infantry units under Sultan Orkhan (c1326 – 1360). Wicca also symbolizes the mother goddess with the crescent moon. The waxing moon symbolizes the maiden, and the waning moon symbolizes the crone. The waxing moon also symbolizes growth and creativity, while the waning moon represents negativity.

The Muslim faith has adopted the crescent moon and star symbol for the mother goddess as a representation of their faith. Moon worship was very common in the ancient Arabian Peninsula. The ancient Persians had a moon goddess, and archeology indicates that the mother goddess was worshiped as a moon goddess throughout the ancient world. The Crescent moon and star is commonly seen on Muslim mosques throughout the world.

Another representation of the mother goddess was embodied in the massive gothic cathedrals of Europe, and their imitated forms around the world. The pointed arch entry to the gothic cathedral represents the entrance into the womb. The floor plan of the gothic cathedral was generally in a phallic cruciform, which also clearly resembles the female reproductive system as viewed from the anterior position.

Interlocking Rings:

One of the symbols linked to the Olympic Games is the Occultic Promethean Torch. The Occultic and pagan nature of the Olympic Games may be traced to the origin of the ancient Olympics. The Olympic Games began in 776 BC in Olympia, Greece. The prizes were olive wreaths, palm branches and woolen ribbons. The Olive wreath, denoting Peace, was the symbol of Pallas Athena the Goddess of Wisdom. The palm branch was a sign of triumph and victory in pre-Christian times. The Games first started in Olympia, Greece, a sanctuary site for the Greek gods, especially Zeus.

Interlocking Rings

The origins of the Ancient Olympic Games are unknown, but several legends and myths have survived. One of these involved Pelops, king of Olympia and eponymous hero of the Peloponnesus, to whom funerary offerings were made during the games. Another legend suggests the ancient Olympic Games were founded by Heracles (the Roman Hercules), a son of Zeus. The ancient Olympic Games grew and continued to be played every four years for nearly 1200 years. In 393 CE, the Roman emperor Theodosius I, a Christian, abolished the Games because of their pagan influences. The Christian Clement of Alexandria asserted, “[The] Olympian games are nothing else than the funeral sacrifices of Pelops.” Whatever the origin, the link to Zeus is undeniable as Olympia was made a shrine to Zeus in 1000BC. Young Greeks competed as an act of worship to Zeus. The lighting of a flame at the altar of Zeus marked the opening of the Games. When they were ended the flame was extinguished.

Revival of the Olympic movement in modern history may be credited to French Freemason Baron Pierre de Coubertin. De Coubertin was inspired by Dr William Penny Brookes who had organized a national Olympic Games at Crystal Palace in the United Kingdom, in 1866, who had also adopted ideas from the Evangelis Zappas revival of the Olympic Games in Greece. The statue of Baron Pierre de Coubertin at Atlanta’s Centenial Olympic Park features the Occultic step pyramid, surrounded by the Two Towers or pillars with the Olympic rings flocked by doves above.

Germany defeated France in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870. After examining the education of the German, British, and American children, Coubertin decided that it was exercise, more specifically sports, that made a well-rounded and vigorous person. Coubertin may also have speculated that a vigorous person might make a good solider. In 1890, de Coubertin organized and founded a sports organization, Union des Sociйtйs Francaises de Sports Athlйtiques (USFSA). The USFSA used an emblem consisting of two interlocking rings, reflecting that the USFSA was born, with de Coubertin as president, through the merger of two previously independent associations. The shape formed by the interlocking of two circles is the “vesica piscis” symbol of the Mother Goddess. The symbol with the “vesica piscis” is known to have been used on uniforms of the USFSA at least as early as 1893.

Coubertin first pitched his idea to revive the Olympic Games at a meeting of the Union des Sports Athlйtiques in Paris on November 25, 1892. Although Coubertin had plenty of credentials, his first pitch for a revival of the Olympic Games was not well received. Two years later, Coubertin organized a meeting with 79 delegates who represented nine countries. He gathered these delegates in an auditorium that was decorated by neoclassical murals and similar additional points of ambiance. At this meeting, Coubertin eloquently spoke of the revival of the Olympic Games. This time, Coubertin aroused interest.

The delegates at the conference voted unanimously for the Olympic Games. The delegates also decided to have Coubertin construct an international committee to organize the Games. This committee became the International Olympic Committee (IOC; Comitй Internationale Olympique) and Demetrious Vikelas from Greece was selected to be its first president. Athens was chosen for the revival of the Olympic Games and the planning was begun. The first Games were set for 1896. De Coubertin regarded the opening and closing ceremonies as a vital part of the Olympics, without which the Olympics would just be another World Championship. Clearly the idea behind the Olympic movement is the uniting of nations into a New World Order through athletic competition.

The Olympic flag was designed in 1913 by Baron Pierre de Coubertin as a flag for the Olympic Congress in Paris of 1914 celebrating the 20th anniversary of the Olympic Movement. At the congress the flag was adopted as the flag for the Olympic Movement. This was originally designed in 1913 by Baron Pierre de Coubertin. According to de Coubertin the five rings represent the five parts of the world which now are won over to Olympism and willing to accept healthy competition.

In all probability the idea of the interlocked rings came to Pierre de Coubertin when he was in charge of the USFSA. The emblem of the union was two interlocked rings (like the vesica piscis) and originated with the idea of Swiss psychiatrist Carl Jung because for him the ring meant continuity and the human being. Carl Jung, the son of a Swiss Pastor, experienced in an intellectual faith crisis. Jung’s family had occult linkage on both sides, from his paternal Grandfather’s Freemasonry involvement as Grandmaster of the Swiss Lodge, and his maternal family’s long-term involvement with sйances and ghosts. Jung was heavily involved for many years with his mother and two female cousins in hypnotically induced sйances. Jung eventually wrote up the sйances as his medical dissertation.

As a youth, Jung had a life-changing dream of a subterranean phallic god, later known as Philemon, which reappeared “whenever anyone spoke too emphatically about Lord Jesus.” Philemon became Jung’s spirit guide and guru. Jung described Philemon as an old man with the horns of a bull…and the wings of a fisher. Before being Philemon, this creature appeared to Jung as Elijah, and then finally mutated to Ka, an Egyptian earth-soul that came from below. Jung explained how the man-eater in general was symbolized by the phallus, so that the dark Lord Jesus, the Jesuit and the phallus were identical. The next major spiritual breakthrough in his life was what Jung described as a “blasphemous vision” of God dropping his dung on the local Cathedral. This vision, said Jung, gave him an intense “experience of divine grace”.

The 1914 Olympic Congress had to be suspended due to the outbreak of World War I, but the emblem and flag were later adopted. They would first officially debut at the VIIth Olympiad in Antwerp, Belgium in 1920. The emblem’s popularity and widespread use began during the lead-up to the 1936 Summer Olympics in Berlin. Baron Pierre de Coubertin had become very supportive of the German National Socialists, the Nazis. The Nazis sought to use the Berlin Olympics as a propaganda tool. Nazi promoters originated the idea of the torch relay to showcase the supremacy of the Arian Race. The Nazis also incorporated the newly created Olympic Symbol into their arsenal of visual propaganda.

Carl Diem, president of the Organizing Committee of the 1936 Summer Olympics, wanted to hold a torchbearers’ ceremony in the stadium at Delphi. For this reason Diem ordered construction of a milestone with the Olympic rings carved in the sides, and that a torchbearer should carry the flame along with an escort of three others from there to Berlin. The ceremony was celebrated but the stone was never removed. Later, two British authors Lynn and Gray Poole when visiting Delphi in the late 1950s saw the stone and reported in their “History of the Ancient Games” that the Olympic rings design came from ancient Greece. This has become known as “Carl Diem’s Stone”. This created a myth that the symbol had an ancient Greek origin. The rings would subsequently be featured prominently in Nazi images in 1936 as part of an effort to glorify the Third Reich.

The current view of the International Olympic Committee is that the Olympic symbol “reinforces the idea” that the Olympic Movement is international and welcomes all countries of the world to join. As can be read in the Olympic Charter, the Olympic symbol represents the union of the five continents (with the Americas considered as one continent and Antarctica excluded) and the meeting of athletes from throughout the world at the Olympic Games. However, no continent is represented by any specific ring. Though colorful explanations about the symbolism of the colored rings exist, the only connection between the rings and the continents is that the number five refers to the number of continents. Baron Pierre de Coubertin never actually compared the rings to the continents, but only to regions of the world. The IOC’s explanation is intended for public consumption, however a deeper hidden meaning lurks within the Olympic symbol.

The emblem of the Olympic Games is composed of five interlocking rings (blue, yellow, black, green, and red respectively) on a white field. First of all the symbol consist of five rings. The correlation of the five rings to the five continents simply doesn’t hold up under scrutiny. The exclusion of Antarctica, because it is largely uninhabited except for some small research stations, makes sense. However if the Americas are to be considered as one continent, then one would equally expect Eurasia to be considered as one continent, and thus one should end up with four and not five rings. Baron Pierre de Coubertin specifically decided to include five rings. The number five is considered powerful in Western magic, and is represented by the pentagram, or five-pointed star. The pentagram was a talisman against evil spirits in ancient Rome. It symbolizes the four directions plus the centre, and humanity as ruler of nature, among other things. Five is associated with the planet Mercury.

The Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn explains that the number 5 symbolizes man standing midway between 1 and 10. The pentagram or five-pointed star also represents Man, with his head in the sky and his arms and legs outstretched. This number represents the five fingers, the five senses, and temptation — humanity. In the Bible, we read that Joshua killed five kings and hung them in a cave, symbolizing the subjection of his five physical senses to his Will. Jesus had five wounds, suggesting that suffering must be experienced before spirit is resurrected and becomes master. Number 5 can also mean man dominating the physical plane and reaching up to higher realms. In this last meaning we find a relationship to Tarot Key 5, the Hierophant. As a priestly figure, he represents humanity in its divine as well as human aspects.

In traditional Chinese philosophy, natural phenomena can be classified into the Wu Xing, or the Five Phases, usually translated as five elements, five movements or five steps. The five elements are chiefly an ancient mnemonic device for systems with 5 stages; hence the preferred translation of “Phase” over “Element”. The elements are: metal (white), wood (green), water (blue), fire (red), and earth (yellow). These are represented by the same five colors chosen by Baron Pierre de Coubertin for his Olympic symbol.

According to Wu Xing theory, the structure of the cosmos mirrors the five elements. Each “element” has a complex series of associations with different aspects of nature. In the ancient Chinese form of geomancy known as Feng Shui practitioners all based their art and system on the five elements (Wu Xing). All of these elements are represented within the Bagua. Associated with these elements are colors, seasons and shapes; all of which are interacting with each other. Note that the colors used in Chinese Cycles of Generation and Control are identical to those used in the Olympic Symbol.

The interdependence of organ networks in the body was noted to be a circle of five things, and so mapped by the Chinese doctors onto the five phases. For instance, the Liver (Wood phase) is said to be the “mother” of the heart (Fire phase), and the Kidneys (Water phase) the mother of the Liver. The key observation was things like kidney deficiency affecting the function of the liver. In this case, the “mother” is weak, and cannot support the child. However, the Kidneys control the heart along the Ke cycle, so the Kidneys are said to restrain the heart. Many of these interactions can nowadays be linked to known physiological pathways (such as Kidney pH affecting heart activity).

All six colors used in the Olympic symbol have a significant meaning to Freemasons. As a Freemason, De Coubertin understood the symbolic meaning of the colors he selected for the Olympic Symbol. The Olympic Symbol is placed on a white background. In Masonry and elsewhere white is the symbol of purity. The idea of purity is represented by white garments worn within the Masonic Lodge. The Masonic symbol of the lambskin or white leather apron is explained, in part, to each candidate as follows: “The lamb has in all ages been deemed an emblem of innocence; he, therefore, who wears the lambskin as a badge of Masonry, is thereby continually reminded of that purity of life and conduct, which is essentially necessary to his gaining admission into the Celestial Lodge Above, where the Supreme Architect of the Universe presides.” Clearly for Freemasons such as De Coubertin purity was something to be achieved by mankind’s own good deeds. For the Olympics these ideas are conveyed in the Olympic Oath. In the Occult white is associated with truth, purity, cleansing, healing and protection. It is a good general healing color for the removal of pain and suffering. It signifies a high level of attainment, a higher level soul incarnate to help others.

The first ring in the Olympic symbol is blue. Blue is the supreme color of Masonry. It is the unquestioned Masonic possession of every Mason. Blue is acknowledged by every Mason to belong to us all and no Mason, whatever his degree, questions the Master Mason’s ownership of blue. Blue also has a place in symbolism which is second to that of no Masonic color. The use of blue in religious ceremonials, and as a symbol, comes to Masonry from many of the different peoples of antiquity including the Hebrews, the Druidical Mysteries, the Babylonians, the Hindu, and the medieval Christians. Blue was the symbol of perfection to the Hebrews, to the Druids the symbol of Truth, to the Chinese the symbol of Deity, and to the medieval Christians it was the symbol of immortality. So, for the Mason, the color of his Master Mason’s lodge is the symbol of perfection, truth, immortality and Deity. Perfection would mean enlightenment. Truth would be the truth that can only be known through the Mystery Schools. Immortality refers to salvation offered in another life. Masons think that salvation refers to being brought from the material to the spiritual or enlightenment. Masonry allows one to reflect on a well-spent life and to “die in the hope of a glorious immortality. The Deity, is the deity of the Olympics Zeus. In the Occult blue is the color of spirituality, intuition, inspiration and inner peace. It is also associated with sadness and depression (the “blues”). In healing blue is used for cooling and calming, both physically and mentally. Blue indicates serenity, contentment and spiritual development.

The second Olympic ring is black. Black from the remotest antiquity has been the symbol of grief and such is its significance to the Mason. The black ring forms a contrast against the white background brining to mind the Masonic Pavement of a lodge’s floor. The Mosaic Pavement is emblematic of human life, checkered with good and evil. The beautiful flooring, we are further told, by reason of it’s being variegated and checkered , points out to us the diversity of objects which decorate and adorn the whole creation, the animate as well as the inanimate parts thereof. All of this would be represented by the color black. Black is the absence of color. It represents the unconscious and mystery. Its visualization can help promote deep meditation. Black also stands for evil. It also signifies some kind of blockage or something being hidden.

The third ring is colored red. Red is the color of fire, and fire was to the Egyptians the symbol of the regeneration and the purification of souls. Red as a part of the Olympic Symbol would also stand for that fire of enlightenment represented by the Olympic Torch. In the Masonic system, red is the symbol of regeneration. Thus red is the color assigned to the Royal Arch Degree since that degree teaches the regeneration of life. Red symbolizes energy, passion, strength, courage, physical activity, creativity, warmth, and security. It is also associated with aggression. In healing, use red to bring warmth and burn out disease. Red is a powerful color and should be used in moderation. Red also signifies materialism, materialistic ambition, a focus on sensual pleasures and a quick temper.

The fourth ring is colored green. Green, being the unchanging color of the various evergreen trees, shrubs, and so forth, is, in the system of Masonry, the color symbolic of the unchanging immortality of all that is divine and true. This conception Masonry has received from the ancients, more particularly the Egyptians. For example, with the Egyptians, as noted above, Ptah was pictured as having green flesh. Also, the goddess Pascht, the divine preserver, and Thoth, the instructor of men in the sacred doctrines of truth, were both painted with green flesh. So the Mason, adhering once more, as he so often does, to the conceptions of the Egyptians, chooses for his symbol of the immortality of the soul which he knows to be divine and true an object, the acacia, whose color is unchanging green. Green symbolizes money, luck, prosperity, vitality and fertility. It is also associated with envy. Green is the color of healing; it is beneficial in all healing situations. Green signifies balance, peace and often indicates healing ability.

The fifth and final ring is yellow. Yellow was to the ancients the symbol of light and thus illumination. Yellow is a true Masonic symbolic color since it symbolizes to the Mason that Great Thing to the finding of which his Masonic Search is devoted and to the source of which his Masonic pathway leads the Light of Truth or enlightenment. Yellow symbolizes intellect, creativity, happiness and the power of persuasion. It is also associated with cowardice. Yellow signifies intellectual development, for either material or spiritual ends.

Each ring on in the Olympic Symbol is actually a circle. The Circle is a symbol for the cycle of eternal life. In its simplest form, it is the universal symbol of Unity, infinity, the Moon or Goddess. To pagans, it represents Mother Earth of the feminine spirit of the Cosmos. Occultist regards the circle as a very important geometric shape. In Book 4, on page 57, Aleister Crowley explains that the circle announces the Nature of the Great Work. The Magician chooses the circle rather than any other lineal figure for many reasons. The circle affirms the Magicians identity with the infinite. The circle affirms equal balance in the work being done. The Magician also affirms the limitation implied by his devotion to the Great Work. The Magician no longer wanders aimlessly in the world. Jung concurred with Crowley when he explained that the circles connote wholeness. Some historians have suggested that the five rings also commemorated the successful completion of the first five Modern Olympic Games, which would appear to fit in with the Occultic meaning of the number five.

Another possible meaning for the selection of five Olympic rings might be traceable to Blavatsky’s Root Race Theory. According to the theory, the large time periods in her esoteric cosmology and symbolizes stages in human evolution. The large time periods of the root races can be compared to the geological time periods or to the Yugas in Hindu Mythology. The theory suggested that the Aryan race was the fifth Root Race. Thus the Olympic rings would be a tribute to the Aryan race. This explanation makes sense given the fact that Baron Pierre de Coubertin had a very cozy relationship with the Nazis.

Auto Union Deutshe Iindustries (AUDI) uses four interlocking rings as their corporate logo. Audi’s four rings represent the juncture of four earlier German auto companies in 1932. Horch, DKW, Wanderer and Audi were forced to ally by depressed market conditions to form Auto Union. After the war, the company finally took the name Audi which is Latin for “I hear,” a translation of the name of August Horch, founder of the company that bore his name, but kept the Auto Union rings. The rings in the Audi logo carry the identical occult meaning as the rings in the Olympic Symbol. This time we find four, instead of five rings explained by the merger of four German auto companies in 1932. The number four is associated with Chesed (on the tree of life in the Kabbalah), the first Sephirah to manifest below the Abyss, but it also refers to Yesod as the firm foundation within which the Four Elements are given etheric form which then later materialize in Malkuth during the course of the Lightning Flash. The Audi logo also consists of two interlaced lemniscates.

The Roman Salute:

The Roman salute is a gesture in which the arm is held out forward straight, with palm down. Sometimes the arm is raised upward at an angle, sometimes it is held out parallel to the ground. Despite the gesture’s name, the gesture was not of Roman origin. Tthe salute is not found in any Roman art or text. Trajan’s Column completed in A.D. 113 contains images of military leaders with his arm raised in a rhetorical gesture. This gesture was known as the “ad locutio” gesture: an ancient Roman gesture of authority, consisting of the right arm extended forward and slightly raised. It was used to command attention by the Roman emperor or one of his generals. In some images a few troops are also depicted with raised arms, possibly suggesting an overwhelming affirmative vote by cheers, shouts, or applause rather than by ballot of the leader. For the troops it was a public oath to support the leader and an affirmation of his power.

The Roman Salute, Tennis Court Oath, The Bellamy Salute, Fascist Solute, and the Olympic Salute

In the Greco-Roman Tradition, oaths were sworn upon Iuppiter Lapis or the Jupiter Stone located in the Temple of Jupiter, Capitoline Hill. In Mesopotamia, Jupiter was known as Neberu and associated with the god Marduk. He was the patron god of Babylon, and considered equivalent to the older Sumerian god Enlil. The Assyrians in turn equated Enlil to their state god, Ashur. All were often just referred to as Lord, and this title is preserved in Biblical references to Baal or Bel. For the Romans an oath to support a leader was invoked in the name of Jupiter (Baal). Iuppiter Lapis was held in the Greco-Roman Tradition to be an Oath Stone, an aspect of Jupiter is his role as divine law-maker responsible for order and used principally for the investiture of the oath-taking of office.

The association of the “ad locutio” gesture with Roman republican culture seems to have emerged in 18th century France with revolutionary and anti-monarchist movements of the era. Several paintings in the Neoclassical style depict Roman heroes adopting variants of the gesture. The most famous and influential of these is Jacques-Louis David’s painting The Oath of the Horatii (1784), which illustrates a pledge of loyalty to the Roman republic. David, like Voltaire, Franklin and numerous Enlightenment figures, was a Freemason.

After the French Revolution of 1789, David was commissioned to depict the formation of the revolutionary government in a similar style. In the Tennis Court Oath (1792) the National Assembly are all depicted with their arms outstretched as they swear to create a new constitution. By the upright hand, the members of the National Assembly are showing their support via an oath for the new constitution they were going to create. After the republican government was replaced by Napoleon’s imperial rйgime, David further deployed the gesture in images of Napoleon receiving the acclamation and loyalty of his soldiers. These consciously imitated ancient Roman ad locutio scenes. The most important of these paintings is The Distribution of the Eagle Standards (1810).

The early images of the gesture are not strictly speaking salutes, since most actually depict the swearing of oaths. Historically these oaths would have invoked Jupiter as the sacred deity before whom the oath was being taken. Jesus said:

34 But I say unto you, Swear not at all; neither by heaven; for it is God’s throne:

35 Nor by the earth; for it is his footstool: neither by Jerusalem; for it is the city of the great King.

5:36 Neither shalt thou swear by thy head, because thou canst not make one hair white or black.

5:37 But let your communication be, Yea, yea; Nay, nay: for whatsoever is more than these cometh of evil.

In the early nineteenth Century American flags were seldom seen in public buildings such as schools. Daniel Ford and James Upham, his nephew, owned Youth’s Companion>, a national family magazine for youth published in Boston. In 1888, the magazine began a campaign to sell American flags to the public schools. In 1891, Upham had the idea of using the celebration of the 400th anniversary of Christopher Columbus’ discovery of America to promote the use of the flag in the public schools.

In 1892, Ford’s friend Baptist minister, Nationalist, and Christian Socialist leader Francis Bellamy was hired by Youth’s Companion and created the Pledge of Allegiance. Bellamy’s first cousin was Edward Bellamy who in 1888 published Looking Backwards a futuristic novel describing utopian Boston in the year 2000. The book spawned an elitist socialist movement in Boston known as “Nationalism,” whose members wanted the federal government to nationalize most of the American economy. Both Bellamys wanted the government to take over all schools and create an “industrial army” of totalitarian socialism as described in the book. Francis Bellamy was a member of this movement and a vice president of its auxiliary group, the Society of Christian Socialists. By 1892, Youth’s Companion had sold American flags to about 26 thousands schools.

Edward Bellamy’s best-selling book was translated into 20 different languages, including Russian, German, Italian, and Chinese. It was popular among the elite in pre-revolutionary Russia, and Lenin’s wife was known to have read the book, because she wrote a review of it. John Dewey and the historian Charles Beard intended to praise the book when they stated that it was equaled in influence only by Das Kapital (1867).

By February 1892, Francis Bellamy and Upham had convinced the National Education Association to support the Youth’s Companion as a sponsor of the national public schools’ observance of Columbus Day along with the use of the American flag. By June 29, Bellamy and Upham had arranged for Congress and President Benjamin Harrison to announce a national proclamation making the public school flag ceremony the center of the national Columbus Day celebrations for 1892. Bellamy, under the supervision of Upham, wrote the program for thiscelebration, including its flag salute, the Pledge of Allegiance. The original Pledge was recited while giving a stiff, uplifted right hand salute, the old Roman “ad locutio” gesture, a symbol for swearing an oath by Jupiter.

It was with this function that the so-called Bellamy salute was adopted in the United States in 1892 as part of the Pledge of Allegiance. This required that participants should initially bend their right arm with the hand held against the forehead, as in a conventional military salute. The arm should then be “extended gracefully, palm upward, toward the flag.” This was based on the American military hand salute. During the Middle Ages knights in armor raised visors with the right hand when meeting a comrade. This practice gradually became a way of showing respect and, in early American history, sometimes involved removing the hat. By 1820, the motion was modified to touching the hat, and since then it has become the Hand Salute used today. Francis Bellamy liked the military salute because Bellamy’s cousin Edward Bellamy was the originator of “military socialism” as a political philosophy, and Francis was Edward’s biggest fan and cohort. The Bellamy salute combined the military salute as a symbol of respect with the Roman “ad locutio” gesture, a symbol for swearing an oath by Jupiter.

Soon the gesture became synonymies with nationalists and socialists movements. Similar gestures were adopted elsewhere in the late-19th century among both nationalist and socialist movements. These movements adopted the gesture because of its alleged association with the Roman Empire and the implied oath of loyalty that accompanied the history of the gesture.

By the end of the 19th century, the gesture was recognized as a symbol of communal acclamation, appropriate as a sign of allegiance to be used in several mass movements. A version was adopted as the Olympic salute. The Olympic salute is a variant of the Roman salute: the right arm and hand are stretched and pointing upward, the palm is outward/downward and the arm is aiming high. The greeting is visible on the official posters of the games at Paris 1924 and Berlin 1936.

Germans saw the straight-armed nationalist salute being used in Americas racist and segregated government schools as an example to be followed throughout the First World War and for the thirty years before Nazism and World War II. Bellamy’s flag salute inspired a number of films about ancient Rome, such as Ben Hur (1907), Nerone (1908), Spartaco (1914) and Cabiria (1914) to portray the gesture as a Roman salute. These films, the pledge of allegiance, and well established national socialist movements in America featured exactly for what German socialists were searching. The National Socialist German Workers’ Party was also inspired by German-Americans who were already national socialists in America. and who joined the German-American Bund movement to support national socialists in Germany before World War II. One of the first groups to adopt the salute outside the United States of America was the National Socialist German Workers’ Party (Nazi Party).

Research by Augustin Thierry into the rituals of Gallic and Germanic tribes led to the claim that gestures such as the “ad locutio” were associated with ancient Aryan peoples for whom monarchy was said to be defined more by charismatic prowess than simple inheritance. Nordic ideology, which was later embraced by the Nazis, claimed that the leading classes of ancient Greek and Roman culture had originated among Germanic peoples, who had migrated south. In consequence it was argued that the gesture was Nordic in origin, expressive of the free acclamation of a leader. This gave a justification for the Nazis to uses the salute. In the German version of the salute the arm was raised smartly to the front, at right angles to the chest with the palm turned downwards.

The Italian nationalist writer and adventurer Gabriele D’Annunzio, who had scripted Cabiria, appropriated the salute with a neo-Imperial meaning when he occupied Rijeka in 1919. The Italian fascist party later adopted the gesture to symbolize their claim to have revitalized Italy on the model of ancient Rome. In the Italian version the arm was typically raised quite high above the shoulder with the palm bent outwards, in a rhetorical manner similar to Roman imperial statuary. The Italians copied use of the gesture from the German Socialists, who in turn had borrowed it from Bellamy’s flag salute of 1892. Under Fascist rule, these salutes were also in use by the general population in Germany and Italy. Achille Starace, the Italian Fascist Party secretary, pushed for measures to make the use of the Roman salute generally compulsory, denouncing hand shaking as effete and foreign.

In late 1937, Mussolini visited Germany and pledged himself to support the National Socialist German Workers’ Party. In 1938, he introduced his ‘reform of customs.’” Hand-shaking was suddenly banned as unhygienic: a salute was to be used instead – the right forearm raised vertically. He imposed a new march on the Italian Army which was simply the goose-step of the National Socialist German Workers’ Party. According to the book “A Concise History of Italy” by Christopher Duggan, these reforms were introduced mainly to underline ideological kinship with the National Socialist German Workers’ Party and to impress it’s leader. Clearly Mussolini and the Italian Socialists were imitating the National Socialist German Workers’ Party, who had copied American ideas. Claims that the Germans imitated the Italians are historically unfounded.

Similarities between the Bellamy Salute and those used by oppressive fascists governments during World War II cased caused President Franklin D. Roosevelt instituted the hand-over-the-heart gesture as the salute to be rendered by civilians during the Pledge of Allegiance and the national anthem in the United States, instead of the Bellamy salute. This was done when Congress officially adopted the Flag Code on 22 June 1942. After World War II, the Olympics banned the salute becaus

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